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Ontario Tech acknowledges the lands and people of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation.

We are thankful to be welcome on these lands in friendship. The lands we are situated on are covered by the Williams Treaties and are the traditional territory of the Mississaugas, a branch of the greater Anishinaabeg Nation, including Algonquin, Ojibway, Odawa and Pottawatomi. These lands remain home to many Indigenous nations and peoples.

We acknowledge this land out of respect for the Indigenous nations who have cared for Turtle Island, also called North America, from before the arrival of settler peoples until this day. Most importantly, we acknowledge that the history of these lands has been tainted by poor treatment and a lack of friendship with the First Nations who call them home.

This history is something we are all affected by because we are all treaty people in Canada. We all have a shared history to reflect on, and each of us is affected by this history in different ways. Our past defines our present, but if we move forward as friends and allies, then it does not have to define our future.

Learn more about Indigenous Education and Cultural Services

Using Quotations in your Essay

It is important to use evidence to support the arguments made in an essay. When a writer uses research in the writing, sometimes it is difficult to decide what should be quoted versus what should be paraphrased or summarized. It is beneficial to know the difference between quotations, paraphrases and summaries and when to use which in the writing.

When to use quotations:

It is important to make quotations work for the writing. They should not be the focus of the essay and should not overpower the writer’s words and ideas. It is also important to fit quotations properly into the essay and not simply drop them in to make the word count longer.

To quote or not to quote:

Only quote sentences that are concise, memorable, or authoritative. Anything that does not fit into these three categories should be paraphrased or summarized and properly cited.

Examples of what to quote:

Memorable Language:

“[T]he only thing we have to fear is fear itself...”

Roosevelt, F. D. (1933, March). Inaugural Address, Washington, D.C.

Authoritative Language (lend authority to your writing):

At two-tenths the speed of light, dust and atoms might not do significant damage even in a voyage of 40 years, but the faster you go, the worse it is—space begins to become abrasive. When you begin to approach the speed of light, hydrogen atoms become cosmic-ray particles, and they will fry the crew . . . So 60,000 kilometers per second may be the practical speed limit for space travel. (Asimov, 1996, p. 220)

Asimov, I. (1996). The relativity of wrong. New York, NY: Kensington Books.

Concise Language:

“To be, or not to be, that is the question” (3.1.55).

Shakespeare, W. (2003). Hamlet, prince of Denmark. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Quote language that is impossible for you to say in your own words because the quote is too memorable (famous), authoritative (well-known, expert, credible, etc.), or brief (if the words are changed, the paraphrase will be much longer than the original quote).

Punctuation in quotations

Quotation marks

Whenever you require a direct quotation, the text you quote will be placed within quotation marks to indicate that this information is not your own. The quote will be followed by an in-text citation that abides by the citation style you are required to follow.

Ellipses 

There are times when you have a good quotation, but it is too long or contains information that is not necessary for you to include within your assignment. When this occurs, you can use an ellipsis, which is three periods that have spaces before and after each period ( . . . ). An ellipsis represents that you are omitting information (such as phrases or full sentences) found within the material you are quoting. An example of an ellipsis is present in the above authoritative language example.

For more rules relevant to ellipsis, review the requirements of the style guide you are using.

 

For more information on paraphrasing and quoting, download the Quoting tip sheet and the Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing tip sheet.

 

References

Indiana University of Pennsylvania. (n.d.). Using ellipses to omit words from a quotation. Kathleen Jones White Writing Centre.
https://www.iup.edu/writingcenter/writing-resources/punctuation/using-ellipses/.