Skip to main content
Ontario Tech acknowledges the lands and people of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation.

We are thankful to be welcome on these lands in friendship. The lands we are situated on are covered by the Williams Treaties and are the traditional territory of the Mississaugas, a branch of the greater Anishinaabeg Nation, including Algonquin, Ojibway, Odawa and Pottawatomi. These lands remain home to many Indigenous nations and peoples.

We acknowledge this land out of respect for the Indigenous nations who have cared for Turtle Island, also called North America, from before the arrival of settler peoples until this day. Most importantly, we acknowledge that the history of these lands has been tainted by poor treatment and a lack of friendship with the First Nations who call them home.

This history is something we are all affected by because we are all treaty people in Canada. We all have a shared history to reflect on, and each of us is affected by this history in different ways. Our past defines our present, but if we move forward as friends and allies, then it does not have to define our future.

Learn more about Indigenous Education and Cultural Services

When to Paraphrase

Since a writer should only quote what is concise, memorable or authoritative, every other piece of evidence should be paraphrased or summarized.

It is important to paraphrase the sourced material correctly, so the difference between the writer’s words and the sourced author’s words is clear in the writing.

Therefore, a paraphrase must

• Refer to the source’s author

• Be the same length as the sourced material

• Contain all of the same ideas from the material

• Change the keywords from the source

• Modify the sentence structure from the source

• Exclude your opinion

• Be well-written

Example:

Original Quote:

All the studies simply report if there are significant differences in college students' views about academic honesty based on nationality and assume the differences are, in large part, caused by different cultures. These studies rely on a framework that assumes that all individuals in a given country are homogeneous in terms of their culture…, minimizing the necessity of measuring culture. Consequently, cultural differences are assumed to exist if the students are from different countries. This is unfortunate because there is some evidence that there are cultural differences between individuals within a country (e.g. ethnic differences) that affect ethical decision making. (Payan, Reardon, & McCorkle, 2010)

Payan, J., Reardon, J., & McCorkle, D.E. (2010). The effect of culture on the academic honesty of marketing and business students. Journal of Marketing Education, 32(3), 275-291.

Correct Paraphrase:

Payan, Reardon, and McCorkle (2010) argued that all prior studies have concluded that the substantial differences in the views of students towards issues of academic honesty are based on cultural differences. However, they pointed out that such studies make assumptions that people within a country all have the same culture, and therefore, undermines the importance of measuring culture. They stated that cultural differences do not only apply to people of different countries because there can be cultural differences within a country, for example, ethnic differences. Accordingly, such differences play a part in each individual’s ethical decision-making process.