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Ontario Tech acknowledges the lands and people of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation.

We are thankful to be welcome on these lands in friendship. The lands we are situated on are covered by the Williams Treaties and are the traditional territory of the Mississaugas, a branch of the greater Anishinaabeg Nation, including Algonquin, Ojibway, Odawa and Pottawatomi. These lands remain home to many Indigenous nations and peoples.

We acknowledge this land out of respect for the Indigenous nations who have cared for Turtle Island, also called North America, from before the arrival of settler peoples until this day. Most importantly, we acknowledge that the history of these lands has been tainted by poor treatment and a lack of friendship with the First Nations who call them home.

This history is something we are all affected by because we are all treaty people in Canada. We all have a shared history to reflect on, and each of us is affected by this history in different ways. Our past defines our present, but if we move forward as friends and allies, then it does not have to define our future.

Learn more about Indigenous Education and Cultural Services

Overview of past tenses

 

 Verb tense

Use

Form

Examples

- Simple past

- To talk about actions that began and ended in the past.

Affirmative:

·         Regular verbs:

Subject + verb + ed*/d**/ied***

 

* Most regular verbs

** Regular verbs ending in e

*** Regular verbs ending in consonant + y

 

·         Irregular verbs:

Subject + simple past form (usually shown on the second column of tables of irregular verbs)

·         Regular verbs:

Researchers investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in this institution from 2010 to 2015.

 

 

 

 

 

·         Irregular verbs:

Researchers came to the conclusion that mindfulness-based interventions were effective.

Negative:

Subject + did not + verb (bare infinitive)

Researchers did not come to the conclusion that mindfulness-based interventions were effective.

Interrogative:

Did + subject + verb (bare infinitive)

Did researchers come to the conclusion that mindfulness-based interventions are effective?


 

 Verb tense

Use

Form

Examples

- Past progressive

- To talk about actions that were in progress at a specific time in the past.

Affirmative:

Subject + was / were + verb + ing

Researchers were investigating the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in this institution at this time last year.

Negative:

Subject + was not / were not + verb + ing

Researchers were not investigating the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in this institution at this time last year.

Interrogative:

Was / Were + subject + verb + ing

Were researchers investigating the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in this institution at this time last year?


 

 Verb tense

Use

Form

Examples

- Past perfect

- To talk about actions that were complete before another action or time in the past.

Affirmative:

Subject + had + verb (past participle)

The researchers had investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in this institution for years before they published their findings.

Negative:

Subject + had not + verb (past participle)

The researchers had not investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in this institution for a long time before they published their findings.

Interrogative:

Had + subject + verb (past participle)

Had the researchers investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in this institution for a long time before they published their findings?


 

 Verb tense

Use

Form

Examples

- Past perfect progressive

- To talk about the duration of actions that were in progress before another action or time in the past.

Affirmative:

Subject + had + been + verb + ing

Researchers had been investigating the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in this institution for years when they published their findings.

Negative:

Subject + had not + been + verb + ing

Researchers had not been investigating the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in this institution for years when they published their findings.

Interrogative:

Had + subject + been + verb + ing

Had researchers been investigating the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in this institution for long when they published their findings?

Notes:

The examples used were adapted from Galante et al. (2018).

For timelines that illustrate the use of the different verb tenses, please refer to http://www.eslcharts.com/verb-tenses-chart.html

 

References:

Azar, B. S.; & Hagen, S. A. (2009). Understanding and Using English Grammar (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Regents.

Galante, J.; Dufour, G.; Vainre, M.; Wagner, A; Stochl, J.; Benton, A. (2018). A mindfulness-based intervention to increase resilience to stress in university students (the Mindful Student Study): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Public Health. 3(2), pp.72-81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(17)30231-1