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APA 7th Edition: Citation

In academic writing, whenever you are presenting an idea that belongs to someone else and that you found in your research, you need to insert an in-text citation to acknowledge the author of the idea as well as the year in which the idea was made public. You can use narrative citations, in which the author, followed by the date, is part of your sentence structure, or parenthetical citations, in which the author only appears in parentheses together with the date right after the idea presented.

Here are two examples of narrative citation:

Batista (2020) suggests that role-play helps develop second language learners’ critical thinking skills.

According to Batista (2020), role-play helps develop second language learners’ critical thinking skills.

Here is one example of parenthetical citation:

Role-play helps develop second language learners’ critical thinking skills (Batista, 2020).

Sometimes you may feel it is important to quote an author because the words they have used to present their ideas are very important to convey the information. You should use quotes sparingly so that your text is as original as possible, that is, it is written in your own words as much as possible. However, when you use quotations, you should include the author’s name, the date of the publication, and the page number where the idea was originally written. When there are no page numbers, for example, in a passage extracted from a website, you should insert the paragraph number. Also, quotes that have up to 39 words are considered short and should come within quotation marks and inside your sentence/paragraph structure.

Here is an example of a short quote:

Batista (2020) claims that “role-play, being one particular type of play, can work as a facilitator to second language acquisition by providing opportunity for significant language use and allowing for flow” (p. 46).

On the other hand, quotes that are 40 words or more are considered long and called block quotations, coming in a new line, indented. No quotation marks are used, and the whole citation (if parenthetical) or the publication date should come at the end, after the final punctuation mark.

Here is an example of a block quotation with narrative citation:

The importance of sociodramatic play in second language development has been highlighted by Batista (2020):

The importance of sociodramatic play is not limited to the development of the child. In second language teaching and learning, this type of play is also relevant regardless of the student’s age because it is an opportunity to promote interactive and cooperative learning as well as the understanding of norms of other cultures, provide practice for real-life experiences, and encourage the participation of shy learners in class, boosting their self-esteem and improving their communicative competence. (p. 49)

Here is an example of a block quotation with parenthetical citation:

The importance of sociodramatic play in second language development has been highlighted in research:

The importance of sociodramatic play is not limited to the development of the child. In second language teaching and learning, this type of play is also relevant regardless of the student’s age because it is an opportunity to promote interactive and cooperative learning as well as the understanding of norms of other cultures, provide practice for real-life experiences, and encourage the participation of shy learners in class, boosting their self-esteem and improving their communicative competence. (Batista, 2020, p. 49)

References

American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Association.

APA Style Blog. https://blog.apastyle.org/

Batista, F. C. A. (2020). Can sociodramatic play enhance second language development? TESL Ontario Contact Magazine, 46(1), 44-51. http://contact.teslontario.org/can-sociodramatic-play-enhance-second-language-development/

Ontario Tech University Library. APA Citation Style Guide. https://guides.library.uoit.ca/citation

Purdue OWL. APA Sample Paper. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/apa_sample_paper.html