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Ontario Tech acknowledges the lands and people of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation.

We are thankful to be welcome on these lands in friendship. The lands we are situated on are covered by the Williams Treaties and are the traditional territory of the Mississaugas, a branch of the greater Anishinaabeg Nation, including Algonquin, Ojibway, Odawa and Pottawatomi. These lands remain home to many Indigenous nations and peoples.

We acknowledge this land out of respect for the Indigenous nations who have cared for Turtle Island, also called North America, from before the arrival of settler peoples until this day. Most importantly, we acknowledge that the history of these lands has been tainted by poor treatment and a lack of friendship with the First Nations who call them home.

This history is something we are all affected by because we are all treaty people in Canada. We all have a shared history to reflect on, and each of us is affected by this history in different ways. Our past defines our present, but if we move forward as friends and allies, then it does not have to define our future.

Learn more about Indigenous Education and Cultural Services

Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography may be required as a part of a larger assignment or as an assignment on its own. In an annotated bibliography, you assess available sources on a topic. An annotated bibliography demonstrates to your professor or TA that you are using credible, valid, reliable, and up-to-date sources. The annotated bibliography may contain as few as five sources or more than fifty. This document can be kept for future reference should you need to complete related research on this topic.

Like a Bibliography (CMS format), a References list (APA format), or a Works Cited list (MLA format), all the sources are listed alphabetically by author’s last name. Confirm with your professor the documentation format you need to follow.  The annotation is a brief summary of the contents of the source, focusing on the main argument and the most important points. It should also include an assessment of the strengths and limitations of the source as it relates to your larger project or the question you are investigating.


  • Source
    • All bibliographic details are given, formatted in the required style of documentation.
    • The sources are listed in alphabetical order by author’s last name.
    • The bibliographic entry is formatted with a hanging indent.
  • Annotation
    • The annotation is written in full sentences and formatted as a block text.
    • The annotation immediately follows the reference and is indented.

Example (APA 6th ed. format):

Marshall, L. (2004). The effects of piracy upon the music industry: A case study of bootlegging. Media, Culture, and Society, 26(2), 163-165.

Marshall’s article explores the effect music piracy has had upon the world, the music industry and the economy. He goes into detail describing what, exactly, bootlegging is. He examines not only the negative effects of bootlegging, but also explores the potential benefits bootlegging could have on the economy. In the end, Marshall believes that the economic benefits of bootlegging nullify any negative outcomes.