Skip to main content

APA 7th Edition: Referencing

The information you must include in the referencing entries will vary depending on the type of publication being referenced. In general, a reference entry will contain the author name, the date of the publication, the title of the work, and the source of the work. However, there are several specificities to referencing books, for instance, that are not applicable to the referencing of journal articles or websites. For this reason, you should be able to search for information on how to reference different sources.

Here is an example of a book reference entry:

Achterberg, J. (1985). Imagery in healing. Shambhala Publications.

Note that this entry starts with the author’s last name followed by a comma and the author’s initial, followed by a period. Then comes the year of publication in parentheses followed by a period. Next comes the title, italicized and followed by a period. Last comes the publishing house.

Here is an example of a journal article reference entry:

Holden-Lund, C. (1988). Effects of relaxation with guided imagery on surgical stress and wound healing. Research in Nursing & Health, 11(4), 235-244. http://doi.org/dztcdf

Note that this entry starts with the author’s last name followed by a comma and the author’s initial, followed by a period. Then comes the year of publication in parentheses followed by a period. Next comes the title followed by a period. After that come the title of the journal followed by the volume number, italicized, and a comma. Right next to the volume number come the issue number, in parentheses, and a comma, followed by the page range of the article within the journal. Finally comes the article’s digital object identifier (DOI) or URL.

Here is an example of a website (with group author) reference entry:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm

Note that it starts with the group author’s name followed by a period. Next comes the full date in the format “year, month day”, in parentheses, followed by a period. After that comes the title of the work followed by a period. Finally comes the URL.

References

American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Association.

APA Style Blog. https://blog.apastyle.org/

Ontario Tech University Library. APA Citation Style Guide. https://guides.library.uoit.ca/citation

Purdue OWL. APA Sample Paper. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/apa_sample_paper.html