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Ontario Tech acknowledges the lands and people of the Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation.

We are thankful to be welcome on these lands in friendship. The lands we are situated on are covered by the Williams Treaties and are the traditional territory of the Mississaugas, a branch of the greater Anishinaabeg Nation, including Algonquin, Ojibway, Odawa and Pottawatomi. These lands remain home to many Indigenous nations and peoples.

We acknowledge this land out of respect for the Indigenous nations who have cared for Turtle Island, also called North America, from before the arrival of settler peoples until this day. Most importantly, we acknowledge that the history of these lands has been tainted by poor treatment and a lack of friendship with the First Nations who call them home.

This history is something we are all affected by because we are all treaty people in Canada. We all have a shared history to reflect on, and each of us is affected by this history in different ways. Our past defines our present, but if we move forward as friends and allies, then it does not have to define our future.

Learn more about Indigenous Education and Cultural Services

References and Citations

References and citations are methods for acknowledging someone’s work. It is important to document all of the sources that you use in your written work. If you borrow someone else’s idea without citing it, that is plagiarism.

Documentation is noting, through references and citations, the ideas of another person that you have used in your written work. A reference is the complete bibliographic information for the source you are using in your essay. A citation is the way you give credit to the original author or creator of ideas.

There are several different documentation styles specific to each discipline. For example, social sciences and health sciences often use APA (American Psychological Association) documentation style. Engineering uses IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers). Find out which documentation styles are used in your courses and learn them. The sooner you understand the formatting of the style, the better off you will be when writing your assignments.


Keep detailed notes of where you have found the research. Learn the proper way to document the research and paraphrase or quote correctly.


For more on understanding the parts of a reference, view the video below by Lund University: